Asikli Hoyuk (Aşıklı Höyük), located 25 km east of Aksaray city center, was established near the Melendiz Stream. Asikli Hoyuk, located in Aksaray and where the first skull surgery was performed 11 thousand years ago, is accepted as the oldest settlement of Central Anatolia. The people living here have the distinction of being the first civilized society that made the first production activities in the region, settled down, and domesticated animals.
The information obtained during the studies dates back to a single cultural period of the Asikli Hoyuk settlement; revealed that it is dated to the Pottery Neolithic Age. Currently, three layers have been identified in the settlement. first layer; Deteriorated and fragmented floor remains just below the surface soil are represented by channels and pits. The main layer of the settlement is; It forms the second layer with at least 10 building levels. In a stepped trench on the northern slope of the mound in a limited area, the third level with 3 building phases; It belongs to the Pottery Neolithic Age. In Asikli Hoyuk, whose architectural excavations are still ongoing, the settlement pattern is outlined; without a stone foundation used as a residence; It consists of a sitting section containing mudbrick structures, structures with special functions, and sections covering other related structures around it. House floors and walls are plastered. The most common building element in the house is the stove. Hearths were usually located in one-room houses and were placed near the corner of the house.
As a result of the excavations carried out in Asikli in previous years, it was known that the settlement consisted of grouped adobe buildings and they were separated from each other by narrow streets. These buildings, which are described as 'residence', are; are similar in size, shape and structure. The floors and walls of the houses were plastered at least three times. The houses are two or three rooms; There are door openings that allow passage between rooms. No outward opening door; suggests that the transition to the houses was provided from the roof.
First Skull Surgery
In Asikli Hoyuk located in Kızılkaya village of Aksaray province, traces of brain surgery called "trepanation", which is very important and a first in the history of medicine, was found on the skull of a woman aged 20-25. As a result of the examinations, it was determined that the hole drilled in the skull was formed as a result of a surgical operation and that the woman was alive when the hole was opened, and it was understood that she lived for about a week after the operation.